A transparent sheet placed over originals or artwork,
allowing the designer to write instructions or indicate
a second colour for placement.
Papermade from pulp containing little or no acid so
it resists deterioration from age. Also known as alkaline
paper, archival paper, neutral pH paper, permanent paper
and thesis paper.
An acid-proof protective coating applied to metal plates
prior to etching.
Colour produced by light falling onto a surface, as
compared to subtractive colour. The additive primary
colours are red, green and blue.
ISO paper size 210 x 297mm
At right angles to the grain direction of the paper
being used, as compared to with the grain. Also known
as across the grain and cross grain. See also Grain
Any change made by the customer after copy or artwork
has been given to the separator or printer. The change
could be in copy, specifications or both. Also known
as AA, author's alteration.
An offset printing plate having a treated surface in
order to reduce wear for extended use.
Fine powder lightly sprayed over the printed surface
of coated paper as sheets leave a press. Also known
as dust, offset powder, powder and spray powder.
In a digitised image, diagonal lines are not a true
diagonal line on the monitor, but rather they are a
series of horizontal and vertical line segments that
simulate a diagonal. At lower resolutions, this will
produce a stair-stepped effect known as aliasing. Anti-aliasing
reduces this effect, helping to produce smoother diagonal
lines by partially filling in or blurring the hard edges.
Coating in a water base and applied like ink by a printing
press to protect and enhance the printing underneath.
All original copy, including type, photos and illustrations,
intended for printing.
At the proofing stage, changes that the client requests
to be made concerning original art provided. AA's are
normally considered an additional cost to the client.
Copy pasted up on the mounting board of a mechanical,
as compared to overlay art.
To move a selected character up or down relative to
the baseline of the surrounding text. This option is
especially useful when hand-setting fractions or adjusting
the position of inline graphics.
Negative made by photographing base art.
In the United States and Canada, the weight, in pounds,
of a ream (500 sheets) of paper cut to the basic size.
Also known as ream weight and substance weight (sub
weight). In countries using ISO paper sizes, the weight,
in grams, of one square meter of paper. Also known as
grammage and ream weight.
The joining of leafs or signatures together with either
wire, glue, thread or other means.
Usually a department within a printing company responsible
for binding, collating, folding, forming nd trimming
various printing projects.
Rubber-coated pad, mounted on a cylinder of an offset
press, that receives the inked image from the plate
and transfers it to the surface to be printed.
Printing that extends to the edge of a sheet or page
Added fine (hairline) rules that define the amount of
extra area to image outside the defined page size.
A page number not printed on the page.
Image debossed, embossed or stamped, but not printed
with ink or foil.
Sticking together of printed sheets, which damage when
the surfaces are separated.
An enlargement, usually used with graphic images or
Prepress photographic proof made from stripped negatives
where all colours show as blue images on white paper.
Because 'blueline' is a generic term for proofs made
from a variety of materials having identical purposes
and similar appearances, it may also be called a blackprint,
blue, blueprint, brownline, brownprint, diazo, dyeline,
ozalid, position proof, silverprint, Dylux and VanDyke.
Commentary of an author or book content on the book
General term for paper over 110# index, 80# cover or
200 gsm that is commonly used for products such as file
folders, displays and post cards. Also known as paperboard.
The main text of work not including the headlines.
Blocks of repetitive type used and copied over and over
Category of paper commonly used for writing, printing
and photocopying. Also known as business paper, communication
paper, correspondence paper and writing paper.
Folded signatures gathered, sewn and trimmed, but not
Category of paper suitable for books, magazines, catalogs,
advertising and general printing needs. Book paper is
divided into uncoated paper (Also known as offset paper),
coated paper (Also known as art paper, enamel paper,
gloss paper and slick paper) and text paper.
A repeating registration problem in the printing stage
The term used to indicate work printed on one of a large
sheet of paper.
The effect produced by dusting wet ink after printing
and using a metallic powder.
To overlap two or more screen tints to create a new
colour. Such an overlap is called a build, colour build,
stacked screen build or tint build.
A dot or similar marking to emphasize text.
To bind by forcing glue into notches along the spines
of gathered signatures before affixing a paper cover.
Also known as burst bind, notch bind and slotted bind.
Register where ink colours meet precisely without overlapping
or allowing space between, as compared to lap register.
Also known as butt fit and kiss register.
A sequence of eight bits and can represent one alphabetic
character or two number digits.
Abbreviations for coated one side and coated two sides.
Mechanicals, photographs and art fully prepared for
reproduction according to the technical requirements
of the printing process being used. Also known as finished
art and reproduction copy.
Paper coated with chemicals that enable transfer of
images from one sheet to another with pressure from
writing or typing.
Selling unit of paper weighing approximately 150 pounds
(60 kilos). A carton can contain anywhere from 500 to
5,000 sheets, depending on the size of sheets and their
Covers and spine that, as a unit, enclose the pages
of a casebound book.
To bind using glue to hold signatures to a case made
of binder board covered with fabric, plastic or leather.
Also known as cloth bind, edition bind, hard bind and
High gloss, coated paper made by pressing the paper
against a polished, hot, metal drum while the coating
is still wet.
Coated paper rated #4 or #5 with basis weight from 35#
to 50# (50 to 75 gsm) commonly used for catalogs and
(1) Widely spaced lines in laid paper.
(2) Blemishes on printed images caused by tracking.
Deterioration of a printed image caused by ink that
absorbs into paper too fast or has long exposure to
sun, and wind making printed images look dusty. Also
known as crocking.
(1) Production copy of a publication verified by the
customer as printed, finished and bound correctly.
(2) One set of gathered book signatures approved by
the customer as ready for binding.
Technique of slightly reducing the size of an image
to create a hairline trap or to outline. Also known
as shrink and skinny.
Strength of a colour as compared to how close it seems
to neutral gray. Also known as depth, intensity, purity
International Cooperation for Integration of Pre-press,
Press and Post-press.
A silhouette of an area that serves as a mask. Only
that portion within the clipping path (mask) appears
when placed into another application or combined with
another image. The area outside the clipping path becomes
A mark used to indicate closing space between characters
or words. Usually used in proofing stages.
Abbreviation for cyan, magenta, yellow and key (black),
the four process colours.
Halftone screen with ruling of 65, 85 or 100 lines per
inch (26, 34 or 40 lines centimeter).
Paper with a coating of clay and other substances that
improves reflectivity and ink holdout. Mills produce
coated paper in the four major categories cast, gloss,
dull and matt.
To organize printed materials in a specific order as
Mostly in the book arena, specific marks on the back
of signatures indicating exact position in the collating
Strip of small blocks of colour on a proof or press
sheet to help evaluate features such as density and
Press sheets printed with photos or illustrations, but
without type. Also known as shells.
In multicolour printing, the point, line or space at
which one ink colour stops and another begins. Also
known as break for colour.
Unwanted colour affecting an entire image or portion
of an image.
To adjust the relationship among the process colours
to achieve desirable colours.
Instructions in computer software that allow users to
change or correct colours. Also known as HLS and HVS
The entire range of hues possible to reproduce using
a specific device, such as a computer screen, or system,
such as four-colour process printing.
Brand name for an overlay colour proof. Sometimes used
as a generic term for any overlay colour proof.
Way of categorizing and describing the infinite array
of colours found in nature.
A set of computer programs used to accurately translate
color calibration. It ensures consistent color from
prepress through print production by calibrating color
between scanners, monitors, imagesetters, proofers,
printers and other devices in the workflow process.
(1) Technique of using a camera, scanner or computer
to divide continuous-tone colour images into four halftone
(2) The product resulting from colour separating and
subsequent four-colour process printing.
Order in which inks are printed. Also known as laydown
sequence and rotation.
Change in image colour resulting from changes in register,
ink densities or dot gain during four-colour process
Film (transparent) used to perform colour separations.
To bind by inserting the teeth of a flexible plastic
comb through holes punched along the edge of a stack
of paper. Also known as plastic bind and GBC bind.
The second or additional flat(s) used when making composite
film or for two or more burns on one printing plate.
Mechanical on which copy for reproduction in all colours
appears on only one surface, not separated onto overlays.
Composite art has a tissue overlay with instructions
that indicate colour breaks.
Film made by combining images from two or more pieces
of working film onto one film for making one plate.
Proof of colour separations in position with graphics
and type. Also known as final proof, imposition proof
and stripping proof.
(1) In typography, the assembly of typographic elements,
such as words and paragraphs, into pages ready for printing.
(2) In graphic design, the arrangement of type, graphics
and other elements on the page.
All photographs and those illustrations having a range
of shades not made up of dots, as compared to line copy
or halftones. Abbreviated contone.
The degree of tones in an image ranging from highlight
Paper that protects a printed publictation. Covers are
often described as follows: Cover 1=outside front; Cover
2=inside front; Cover 3=inside back, Cover 4=outside
Extent to which ink covers the surface of a substrate.
Ink coverage is usually expressed as light, medium or
Category of thick paper used for products such as posters,
menus, folders and covers of paperback books.
Coarse cloth embedded in the glue along the spine of
a book to increase strength of binding. Also known as
gauze, mull and scrim.
Phenomenon of middle pages of a folded signature extending
slightly beyond outside pages. Also known as feathering,
outpush, push out and thrust. See also Shingling.
Lines near the edges of an image indicating portions
to be reproduced. Also known as cut marks and tic marks.
Type or art that continues from one page of a book or
magazine across the gutter to the opposite page. Also
known as bridge, gutter bleed and gutter jump.
Computer-to-plate. A technology which involves the laser
exposure of a printing plate, without the use of a film
intermediate. This can be done on-press and off-press,
and may not involve a plate processor.
To dry inks, varnishes or other coatings after printing
to ensure good adhesion and prevent setoff.
Circumference of the impression cylinder of a web press,
therefore also the length of the printed sheet that
the press cuts from the roll of paper.
Paper sizes used with office machines and small presses.
A machine that cuts stacks of paper to desired sizes.
One of the four process colours. Also known as process
To press an image into paper so it lies below the surface.
Instrument used to measure density.
(1) For ink, the relative thickness of a layer of printed
(2) For colour, the relative ability of a colour to
absorb light reflected from it or block light passing
Difference between the darkest and lightest areas of
copy. Also known as contrast ratio, copy range and tonal
Technique of using a personal computer to design images
and pages, and assemble type and graphics, then using
a laser printer or imagesetter to output the assembled
pages onto paper, film or printing plate. Abbreviated
Hules identified by wavelength or by their place in
systems such as developed by CIE. 'Device independent'
means a colour can be described and specified without
regard to whether it is reproduced using ink, projected
light, photographic chemistry or any other method.
Device for cutting, scoring, stamping, embossing and
To cut irregular shapes in paper or paperboard using
Page proofs produced through electronic memory transferred
onto paper via laser or ink-jet.
Chemical process of reproducing line copy and making
halftone positives ready for paste-up.
Dot created by a computer and printed out by a laser
printer or imagesetter. Digital dots are uniform in
size, as compared to halftone dots that vary in size.
Colour proof made by a laser, ink jet printer or other
computer-controlled device without needing to make separation
films first. Abbreviated DDCP.
A letter fold at the side of one of the creases, an
Phenomenon of halftone dots printing larger on paper
than they are on films or plates, reducing detail and
lowering contrast. Also known as dot growth, dot spread
and press gain.
Relative size of halftone dots as compared to dots of
the screen ruling being used. There is no unit of measurement
to express dot size. Dots are too large, too small or
correct only in comparison to what the viewer finds
Measure of resolution of input devices such as scanners,
display devices such as monitors, and output devices
such as laser printers, imagesetters and monitors. Abbreviated
DPI. Also known as dot pitch.
Duotone printed from two halftones, one shot for highlights
and the other shot for midtones and shadows.
To expose film or a plate twice to different negatives
and thus create a composite image.
Halftone double burned onto one plate from two halftones,
one shot for shadows, the second shot for midtones and
Printing defect appearing as blurring or shadowing of
the image. Doubling may be caused by problems with paper,
cylinder alignment, blanket pressures or dirty cylinders.
Considered as "dots per square inch," a measure
of output resolution in relationship to printers, imagesetters
Sample of inks specified for a job applied to the substrate
specified for a job. Also known as pulldown.
Halftone dots or fine lines eliminated from highlights
by overexposure during camera work.
Halftone in which contrast has been increased by eliminating
dots from highlights.
A large high-quality digital image scanner. Drum scanners
require the source image to be wrapped around a drum
to be scanned, which limits their utility to photographs
and similar paper or film-based images. They can, however,
produce very high-quality images suitable for professional
Phenomenon of printed ink colours becoming less dense
as the ink dries.
Using metal plates in the printing process, which are
etched to .15mm (.0006 in) creating a right reading
plate, printed on the offset blanket transferring to
paper without the use of water.
To print over dry ink, as compared to wet trap.
Desktop Publishing - The use of personal computers,
or workstations, to design and produce digital documents
that are output to paper, film or plates. Can be used
to design products of any type.
Bond paper suitable for printing by either lithography
(offset) or xerography (photocopy). Abbreviated DP bond
Flat (not glossy) finish on coated paper; slightly smoother
than matt. Also known as suede finish, velour finish
and velvet finish.
Simulation of the final product. Also known as mock-up.
Black-and-white photograph reproduced using two halftone
negatives, each shot to emphasize different tonal values
in the original.
Thick paper made by pasting highlights together two
thinner sheets, usually of different colours. Also known
as double-faced paper and two-tone paper.
Brand name for photographic paper used to make blue
line proofs. Often used as alternate term for blueline.
To press an image into paper so it lies above the surface.
Also known as cameo and tool.
Casting of light-sensitive chemicals on papers, films,
printing plates and stencils.
Film whose emulsion side faces down (away from the viewer)
or up (toward the viewer) when ready to make a plate
or stencil. Abbreviated ED, EU. Also known as E up/down
and face down/face up.
Computer file containing both images and PostScript
commands. Abbreviated EPS file.
Scrambling of data being transmitted over the Internet
in order to prevent anyone but the intended recipient
from reading it. On the receiving end, the data must
be decoded to return it to its original condition.
Gluing sheets of paper folded once only to the first
and last section of a book.
Sheet that attaches the inside pages of a case bound
book to its cover. Also known as pastedown or end papers.
Printing method using a plate, also called a die, with
an image cut into its surface.
Abbreviation for envelope.
Encapsulated Post Script, a known file format usually
used to transfer post script information from one program
Price that states what a job will probably cost. Also
known as bid, quotation and tender.
The individual performing or creating the "estimate."
To use chemicals and light to carve an image into metal,
glass or film.
A network technology used in local area networks (LAN)
and wide area networks (WAN). Ethernet is a networking
cabling system that transmits data at high speeds. Standard
Ethernet (10 Base-T) transmits at 10 Mbps. Fast Ethernet
(100 Base-T) transmits at 100 Mbps and requires Fiber
To subcontract for a service that is closely related to
the business of the organization. Also known as outsource.
Halftone in one ink colour printed over screen tint
of a second ink colour. Also known as dummy duotone,
dougraph, duplex halftone, false duotone, flat tint
halftone and halftone with screen.
Component of a printing press that moves paper into
the register unit.
Ink colour used in addition to the four needed by four-colour
Thickness of film. The most common gauge for graphic
arts film is 0.004 inch (0.1 mm).
Thin sheet of plastic bonded to a printed product for
protection or increased gloss or matt.
The last proof showing that is reviewed, approved, and
signed and then sent to the printer.
Papers made specifically for writing or commercial printing,
as compared to coarse papers and industrial papers.
Also known as cultural papers and graphic papers.
Screen with ruling of 150 lines per inch (80 lines per
centimeter) or more.
(1) Surface characteristics of paper.
(2) General term for trimming, folding, binding and
all other post-press operations.
Size of product after production is completed, as compared
to flat size. Also known as trimmed size.
Refers to ability of film to be registered during stripping
and assembly. Good fit means that all images register
to other film for the same job.
Scanning device that incorporates a flat transparent
plate, on which original images are placed for scanning.
The scanning process is linear rather than rotational.
(1) Any colour created by printing only one ink, as
compared to a colour created by printing four-colour
process. Also known as block colour and spot colour.
(2) colour that seems weak or lifeless.
Size of product after printing and trimming, but before
folding, as compared to finished size.
Method of printing on a web press using rubber or plastic
plates with raised images. Also known as aniline printing
because flexographic inks originally used aniline dyes.
To print a sheet completely with an ink or varnish.
Cover trimmed to the same size as inside pages, as compared
to overhang cover. Also known as cut flush.
Leaf, at the front and back of a casebound book that
is the one side of the end paper not glued to the case.
Used in making type more legible by lowering density
of an image, while allowing the image to show through.
To foil stamp and emboss an image. Also known as heat
Method of printing that releases foil from its backing
when stamped with the heated die. Also known as block
print, hot foil stamp and stamp.
With printed matter, markings indicating where a fold
is to occur, usually located at the top edges.
Gatefold sheet bound into a publication. Also known
as gatefold and pullout.
The actual page number in a publication.
A complete set of upper and lower case alphabets, numerics,
punctuation marks, and symbols of one specific typeface,
size, and style.
All the fonts in one typeface. Includes bold and italic
fonts and other weights available in that typeface plus
a range of sizes.
Each side of a signature.
Size, style, shape, layout or organization of a layout
or printed product.
Lightweight bond, easy to perforate, made for business
forms. Also known as register bond.
Roller that come in contact with the printing plate,
bringing it ink or water.
Refers to inexpensive copies of photos or art used on
mechanical to indicate placement and scaling, but not
intended for reproduction. Abbreviated FPO.
In the case book arena, the binding process which involves
folding, rounding, backing, headbanding and reinforcing.
Trough or container, on a printing press, that holds
fluids such as ink, varnish or water. Also known as
Mixture of water and chemicals that dampens a printing
plate to prevent ink from adhering to the nonimage area.
Also known as dampener solution.
Technique of printing that uses black, magenta, cyan
and yellow to simulate full-colour images. Also known
as colour process printing, full colour printing and
For Position Only. A low resolution image placed in
a document to indicate where the final version is to
File Transfer Protocol. A protocol used to transfer
files over a TCP/IP network (Internet, Unix, etc.).
FTP includes functions to log onto the network, list
directories and copy files. It can also convert between
the ASCII and EBCDIC character codes. FTP normally requires
a user ID and possibly a password to gain access.
Halftone ranging from 0 percent coverage in its highlights
to 100 percent coverage in its shadows.
Black separation made to have dots throughout the entire
tonal range of the image, as compared to half-scale
black and skeleton black. Also known as full-range black.
(1) To halftone or separate more than one image in only
(2) To reproduce two or more different printed products
simultaneously on one sheet of paper during one press
run. Also known as combination run.
A sheet that folds where both sides fold toward the
gutter in overlapping layers.
Signatures assembled next to each other in the proper
sequence for binding, as compared to nested. Also known
Normal halftone whose density has been reduced to produce
a very faint image.
(1) Phenomenon of a faint image appearing on a printed
sheet where it was not intended to appear. Chemical
ghosting refers to the transfer of the faint image from
the front of one sheet to the back of another sheet.
Mechanical ghosting refers to the faint image appearing
as a repeat of an image on the same side of the sheet.
(2) Phenomenon of printed image appearing too light
because of ink starvation.
Gold leafing the edges of a book.
Consider the light reflecting on various objects in
the printing industry (e.g., paper, ink, laminates,
UV coating, varnish).
Ink used and printed on coated stock (mostly litho and
letterpress) such as the ink will dry without penetration.
Screen tint that changes densities gradually and smoothly,
not in distinct steps. Also known as degrade, gradient,
ramped screen and vignette.
Predominant direction in which fibers in paper become
aligned during manufacturing.
Paper whose fibers run parallel to the long dimension
of the sheet. Also known as long grain paper and narrow
Paper whose fibers run parallel to the short dimension
of the sheet. Also known as short grain paper and wide
Basis weight of paper in grams per square meter (gsm).
The crafts, industries and professions related to designing
and printing on paper and other substrates.
Film whose emulsion yields high contrast images suitable
for reproduction by a printing press, as compared to
continuous-tone film. Also known as litho film and repro
Visual elements that supplement type to make printed
messages more clear or interesting.
Method of printing using metal cylinders etched with
millions of tiny wells that hold ink.
Printed cyan, magenta and yellow halftone dots that
accurately, reproduce a neutral gray image.
Technique of replacing gray tones in the yellow, cyan
and magenta films, made while colour separating, with
black ink. Abbreviated GCR. Also known as achromatic
Number of distinct gray tones that can be reproduced
by a computer.
Strip of gray values ranging from white to black. Used
by process camera and scanner operators to calibrate
exposure times for film and plates. Also known as step
Approximately 1/8 inch (3 mm) along the spine that is
ground off gathered signatures before perfect binding.
Edge of a sheet held by grippers on a sheetfed press,
thus going first through the press. Also known as feeding
edge and leading edge.
Newsprint and other inexpensive paper made from pulp
created when wood chips are ground mechanically rather
than refined chemically.
The unit of measurement for paper weight (grams per
In books, the inside margins toward the back or the
Black separation made to have dots only in the shadows
and midtones, as compared to full-scale black and skeleton
(1) To photograph or scan a continuous tone image to
convert the image into halftone dots.
(2) A photograph or continuous-tone illustration that
has been halftoned and appears on film, paper, printing
plate or the final printed product.
Piece of film or glass containing a grid of lines that
breaks light into dots. Also known as contact screen
Faint shadow sometimes surrounding halftone dots printed.
The halo itself is also known as a fringe.
Halftone dots with no halos or soft edges, as compared
to soft dots.
At the top of a page, the margin.
Imposition with heads (tops) of pages facing tails (bottoms)
of other pages.
Spot or imperfection in printing, most visible in areas
of heavy ink coverage, caused by dirt on the plate or
Colour reproduced using six, eight or twelve separations,
as compared to four-colour process.
Photo whose most important details appear in the highlights.
Lightest portions of a photograph or halftone, as compared
to midtones and shadows.
Perfect bound cover scored 1/8 inch (3mm) from the spine
so it folds at the hinge instead of, along the edge
of the spine.
Abbreviation for hue, lightness, saturation, one of
the colour-control options often found in software,
for design and page assembly. Also known as HVS.
Printing defect caused when a piece of dirt or an air
bubble caused incomplete draw-down during contact platemaking,
leaving an area of weak ink coverage or visible dot
"International Colour Consortium". A consortium
of companies that defined the open standard for creating
colour management profiles used for converting colours
in the RGB medium to the CMYK medium, to ensure that the
colours on the RGB medium remains the same when converted
to the CMYK medium.
The actual area on the printed matter that is not restricted
to ink coverage.
Laser output device using photosensitive paper or film.
Arrangement of pages on mechanicals or flats so they
will appear in proper sequence after press sheets are
folded and bound.
(1) Referring to an ink colour, one impression equals
one press sheet passing once through a printing unit.
(2) Referring to speed of a press, one impression equals
one press sheet passing once through the press.
Cylinder, on a press, that pushes paper against the
plate or blanket, thus forming the image. Also known
as impression roller.
To print new copy on a previously printed sheet, such
as imprinting an employee's name on business cards.
Relationship of the densities and dot gains of process
inks to each other and to a standard density of neutral
Reservoir, on a printing press, that holds ink.
Characteristic of paper that prevents it from absorbing
ink, thus allowing ink to dry on the surface of the
Form (side of the press sheet) whose images all appear
inside the folded signature, as compared to outer form.
Within a publication, an additional item positioned
into the publication loose (ie. not bound in).
Printing method whose image carriers are surfaces with
two levels, having inked areas lower than noninked areas.
Gravure and engraving are the most common forms of intaglio.
Also known as recess printing.
Colour proof of separations shown on one piece of proofing
paper, as compared to an overlay proof. Also known as
composition proof, laminate proof, plastic proof and
The 32-bit numeric representation of the location or
address of a device on the Internet. The unique address
is assigned to client and server computers, which allows
them to be connected to a TCP/IP network to access the
Internet. The format of the address is 4 numbers separated
by periods such as 255.255.255.255. It is also known
as a dot address, host address, Internet address, or
A number assigned to a published work and usually found
either on the title page or the back of the title page.
Considered an International Standard Book Number.
A standard for the digital transmission over telephone
Industry standard colour reference target used to calibrate
input and output devices.
The outer wrapping or casing for a case book.
A number assigned to a specific project for use in tracking
and historical record keeping.
Abbreviation for black in four-colour process printing.
Hence the 'K' in CMYK.
(1) The screw that controls ink flow from the ink fountain
of a printing press.
(2) To relate loose pieces of copy to their positions
on a layout or mechanical using a system of numbers
(3) Alternate term for the colour black, as in 'key
Lines on a mechanical or negative showing the exact
size, shape and location of photographs or other graphic
elements. Also known as holding lines.
Negative or plate that prints the most detail, thus
whose image guides the register of images from other
To die cut the top layer, but not the backing layer,
of self-adhesive paper. Also known as face cut.
Lightest possible impression that will transfer ink
to a Substrate.
An opening, left in a printed area, in which a figure
or photograph may be placed. Reversing type or art out
of the background so that when the type or art is printed
in that area, it will not interfere with the color to
Strong paper used for wrapping and to make large envelopes.
Finish on bond or text paper on which grids of parallel
lines simulate the surface of handmade paper. Laid lines
are close together and run against the grain; chain lines
are farther apart and run with the grain.
Local Area Network. A network of computers that are
physically linked together on a single site without
the use of telephone lines of any sort. Typically, a
LAN requires the installation of specialised hardware.
A thin transparent plastic sheet (coating) applied to
usually a thick stock (covers, post cards, etc.) providing
protection against liquid and heavy use, providing a
glossy or matt effect.
Artist style in which width is greater than height.
(Portrait is opposite.)
Register where ink colours overlap slightly, as compared
to butt register.
A printer that uses a laser beam to create an image
on a drum by the use of electrostatic printing technology.
The image is created from digital files.
Method of perfect binding that allows a publication
to lie fully open.
The edge of a sheet of paper feeding into a press.
A sample of the original showing position of printed
work needed with directions and instructions.
Amount of space between lines of type.
One sheet of paper in a publication. Each side of a
leaf is one page.
Two folds creating three panels that allow a sheet of
letterhead to fit a business envelope. Also known as
barrel fold and wrap around fold.
In North America, 8 1/2' x 11' sheets. In Europe, A4
Book paper with basis weight less than 40# (60 gsm).
Any high-contrast image, including type, as compared
to continuous-tone copy. Also known as line art and
Negative made from line copy.
Embossed finish on text paper that simulates the pattern
of linen cloth.
Method of printing using plates whose image areas attract
ink and whose nonimage areas repel ink. Nonimage areas
may be coated with water to repel the oily ink or may
have a surface, such as silicon, that repels ink.
Area on a mechanical within which images will print.
Also known as safe area.
Binding method allowing insertion and removal of pages
in a publication (e.g., trim-4-drill-3).
Proof of a halftone or colour separation that is not
assembled with other elements from a page, as compared
to composite proof. Also known as first proof, random
proof, scatter proof and show-colour proof.
Lens built into a small stand. Used to inspect copies,
films, proofs, plates and prints. Also known as glass
and linen tester.
Photo whose most important details appear in the shadows.
Lines per inch. The number of lines of dots per inch
in a halftone screen or linescreen. A screen with a
higher lpi, such as 200 lpi has many smaller dots which
provide finer detail and sharper image clarity. The
LPI of a halftone screen is also called frequency.
One of the four process colours.
(1) All activities required to prepare a press or other
machine to function for a specific printing or binding
job. Also known as setup.
(2) Paper used in the makeready process at any stage
in production. Makeready paper is part of waste or spoilage.
Order for paper that a mill makes to the customer's
specifications, as compared to a mill order or stock
Die that applies pressure during embossing or debossing.
Also known as force card.
An author's original form of work (hand written, typed
or on disk) submitted for publication.
Imprinted space around the edge of the printed material.
Instructions written usually on a draft or mock-up.
To combine two or more collated piles together.
To prevent light from reaching part of an image, therefore
isolating the remaining part. Also known as knock out.
Printing inks which produce a gold, silver, or bronze
A form of a four-colour-process proofing system.
Flat (not glossy) finish on photographic paper or coated
Camera-ready assembly of type, graphic and other copy
complete with instructions to the printer. A hard mechanical
consists of paper and/or acetate, is made using paste-up
techniques, and may also be called an artboard, board
or paste-up. A soft mechanical, also known as an electronic
mechanical, exists as a file of type and other images
assembled using a computer.
To bind using a comb, coil, ring binder, post or any
other technique not requiring gluing, sewing or stitching.
Colour breaks made on the mechanical using a separate
overlay for each colour to be printed.
In a photograph or illustration, tones created by dots
between 30 percent and 70 percent of coverage, as compared
to highlights and shadows.
The thickness of plastic films as printing substrates
are expressed in mils.
Phenomenon of droplets of ink being thrown off the roller
train. Also known as flying ink.
A reproduction of the original printed matter which
may contain instructions or directions.
Undesirable pattern resulting when halftones and screen
tints are made with improperly aligned screens, or when
a pattern in a photo, such as a plaid, interfaces with
a halftone dot pattern.
Paper size (7' x 10') and envelope shape often used
for personal stationery.
Spotty, uneven ink absorption. Also known as sinkage.
A mottled image may be called mealy.
A specific type of glue used for books binding and personal
pads needing strength.
Printing in more than one ink colour (but not four-colour
process). Also known as polychrome printing.
Weight of 1,000 sheets of paper in any specific size.
Very light brown colour of paper. May also be called antique,
cream, ivory, off-white or mellow white.
Film that allows light from passing through images,
as compared to positive film that prevents light to
Signatures assembled inside one another in the proper
sequence for binding, as compared to gathered. Also
known as inset.
Gray with no hue or cast.
Paper used in printing newspapers.
Flaw in a photograph or halftone that looks like a drop
of oil or water.
In the book binding process, a stage where air is expelled
from its contents at the sewing stage.
Printing using lasers, ions, ink jets or heat to transfer
images to paper.
Light blue that does not record on graphic arts film,
therefore may be used to preprint layout grids and write
instructions on mechanicals. Also known as blue pencil,
drop-out blue, fade-out blue and nonrepro blue.
Printing technique that transfers ink from a plate to
a blanket to paper instead of directly from plate to paper.
(1) Characteristic of paper or other substrate that
prevents printing on one side from showing through the
(2) Characteristic of ink that prevents the substrate
from showing through.
(1) Not transparent.
(2) To cover flaws in negative with tape or opaquing
paint. Also known as block out and spot.
Hardware and software that link desktop publishing systems
with colour electronic prepress systems.
Form (side of a press sheet) containing images for the
first and last pages of the folded signature (its outside
pages) as compared to inner form.
Halftone in which background has been removed or replaced
to isolate or silhouette the main image. Also known
as knockout halftone and silhouette halftone.
Layer of material taped to a mechanical, photo or proof.
Acetate overlays are used to separate colours by having
some type or art on them instead of on the mounting
board. Tissue overlays are used to carry instructions
about the underlying copy and to protect the base art.
Colour proof consisting of polyester sheets laid on
top of each other with their image in register, as compared
to integral proof. Each sheet represents the image to
be printed in one colour. Also known as celluloid proof
and layered proof.
To print one image over a previously printed image,
such as printing type over a screen tint. Also known
One side of a leaf in a publication.
Total number of pages that a publication has. Also known
Proof of type and graphics as they will look on the
finished page complete with elements such as headings,
rules and folios.
In the book arena, the numbering of pages.
Sheet printed with ink edge to edge, as compared to
spot colour. The painted sheet refers to the final product,
not the press sheet, and means that 100 percent coverage
results from bleeds off all four sides.
One page of a brochure, such as one panel of a rack
brochure. One panel is on one side of the paper.
Method of folding. Two parallel folds to a sheet will
produce 6 panels.
Any sheet larger than 11' x 17' or A3.
Chipboard with another paper pasted to it.
To paste copy to mounting boards and, if necessary,
to overlays so it is assembled into a camera-ready mechanical.
The mechanical produced is often called a paste-up.
Portable Document Format. A file format developed by
Adobe Systems. It can capture formatting information
from many publishing applications. This makes it possible
to send a formatted document to a computer screen or
printer and have it look exactly the way in which it
was created. You need Acrobat Reader to read PDF files.
Proofreader mark meaning printer error and showing a
mistake by a typesetter, prepress service or printer
as compared to an error by the customer.
To bind sheets that have been ground at the spine and
are held to the cover by glue. Also known as adhesive
bind, cut-back bind, glue bind, paper bind, patent bind,
soft bind and soft cover.
Press capable of printing both sides of the paper during
a single pass. Also known as duplex press and perfector.
On a mock-up marking where the perforation is to occur.
Taking place on a press or a binder machine, creating
a line of small dotted wholes for the purpose of tearing-off
a part of a printed matter.
A unit of measure in the printing industry. A pica is
approximately 0.166 in. There are 12 points to a pica.
Engraving done using photochemistry.
Brand name for a diffusion transfer process used to
make positive paper prints of line copy and halftones.
Often used as alternate term for photostat. Abbreviated
Brand name for a diffusion transfer process used to
make positive paper prints of line copy and halftones.
Often used as alternate term for PMT.
Phenomenon of ink pulling bits of coating or fiber away
from the surface of paper as it travels through the
press, thus leaving unprinted spots in the image area.
Artwork, used in a previous job, to be incorporated
in a current job.
Small holes (unwanted) in printed areas because of a
variety of reasons.
Technique of registering separations, flats and printing
plates by using small holes, all of equal diameter,
at the edges of both flats and plates.
Short for picture element, a dot made by a computer,
scanner or other digital device.
Printing method whose image carriers are level surfaces
with inked areas separated from noninked areas by chemical
means. Planographic printing includes lithography, offset
lithography and spirit duplicating.
Piece of paper, metal, plastic or rubber carrying an
image to be reproduced using a printing press.
Stripped negatives or positives fully prepared for platemaking.
(1) Regarding paper, a unit of thickness equating 1/1000
inch. (2) Regarding type, a unit of measure equaling
1/12 pica and .013875 inch (.351mm).
An art design in which the height is greater than the
width. (Opposite of Landscape)
Photocopy or PMT of a photo or illustration made to
size and affixed to a mechanical.
Film that prevents light from passing through images,
as compared to negative film that allows light to pass
through. Also known as knockout film.
To bind using a screw and post inserted through a hole
in a pile of loose sheets.
A page description language developed by Adobe Systems.
This is a language used for printing documents on laser
printers and other output devices, such as imagesetters.
PostScript is an object-oriented language which means
it treats images, fonts, and graphics as geometrical
objects rather than as bitmaps. It allows output devices
from different manufacturers, that would not normally
read a file in the same way, to read and print the file
basically the same.
The evaluation, during the digital pre-press stage,
of an electronic file to determine if all the elements
necessary to print from it have been included and are
Processes performed on a printing order before it is
printed. These include camera work, scanning, colour
separations, imaging, stripping, platemaking and other
Any colour proof made using ink jet, toner, dyes or
overlays, as compared to a press proof printed using
ink. Also known as dry proof and off-press proof.
To print portions of sheets that will be used for later
Event at which makeready sheets from the press are examined
before authorizing full production to begin.
Proof made on press using the plates, ink and paper
specified for the job. Also known as strike off and
(1) Amount of time that one printing job spends on press,
including time required for makeready.
(2) Time of day at which a printing job goes on press.
Quantity at which unit cost of paper or printing drops.
A color that is the basis for all other color combinations.
The primary colors are Red, Green and Blue (RGB) in
light; Cyan, Magenta and Yellow (CMY) in color photographic
Usually in the book arena, consecutive pages as they
appear on a flat or signature.
Mechanicals made so they are imposed for printing, as
compared to reader spreads.
Any process that transfers to paper or another substrate
an image from an original such as a film negative or
positive, electronic memory, stencil, die or plate.
A thin object (plate) made of either metal or paper
which is light sensitive and causes an image to be transferred
to paper while on a printing press. The image is burned
onto the plate by the use of high intensity light. The
surface of the plate is treated or configured so that
only the printing image is receptive to the ink which
transfers to the printed object
Assembly of fountain, rollers and cylinders that will
print one ink colour. Also known as colour station,
deck, ink station, printer, station and tower.
The colours used for four-colour process printing: yellow,
magenta, cyan and black.
Press run intended to manufacture products as specified,
as compared to makeready.
Test sheet made to reveal errors or flaws, predict results
on press and record how a printing job is intended to
appear when finished.
Standard symbols and abbreviations used to mark up manuscripts
and proofs. Also known as correction marks.
Round device used to calculate percent that an original
image must by reduced or enlarged to yield a specific
reproduction size. Also known as percentage wheel, proportion
dial, proportion wheel and scaling wheel.
A term used typically to describe vendor-specific a
database management system, characterised by a "non-open"
architecture. The system relies on applications from
a single vendor, and applications access the system
through closed application programming interface, thus
making it difficult to integrate with components from
Paper made in weights, colours and surfaces suited to
books, magazines, catalogs and free-standing inserts.
(1) Sheet folded twice, making pages one-fourth the size
of the original sheet. A quarto makes an 8-page signature.
(2) Book made from quarto sheets, traditionally measuring
about 9' x 12'.
Price offered by a printer to produce a specific job.
A hardware device or program that translates electronic
file data (PostScript) for the bitmapped image of text
and graphics and then converts the data into dot patterns
that can be understood by the output device.
Mechanicals made in two page spreads as readers would
see the pages, as compared to printer spread.
500 sheets of paper.
Cross-hair lines on mechanicals and film that help keep
flats, plates, and printing in register. Also known
as crossmarks and position marks.
Printing method whose image carriers are surfaces with
two levels having inked areas higher than non-inked
areas. Relief printing includes block printing, flexography
and letter press.
Digitally transmitting a file of a proof to an outside
location so that the proof can be output at that location
Sharpness of an image on film, paper, computer screen,
disc, tape or other medium.
An image, such as the GATF Star Target, that permits
evaluation of resolution on film, proofs or plates.
Type, graphic or illustration reproduced by printing
ink around its outline, thus allowing the underlying
colour or paper to show through and form the image.
The image 'reverses out' of the ink colour. Also known
as knockout and liftout.
Abbreviation for the three colours, red, green and blue,
which are the primary colours that are mixed to display
the colours of pixels on a computer monitor.
Copy that reads correctly in the language in which it
is written. Also describes a photo whose orientation
looks like the original scene, as compared to a flopped
Printing press which passes the substrate between two
rotating cylinders when making an impression.
To casebind with a rounded (convex) spine, as compared
to flat back bind.
Mask on a mechanical, made with rubylith, that creates
a window on film shot from the mechanical.
Map or drawing given by a printer to a stripper showing
how a printing job must be imposed using a specific
press and sheet size. Also known as press layout, printer's
layout and ruleout.
To bind by stapling sheets together where they fold at
the spine, as compared to side stitch. Also known as pamphlet
stitch, saddle wire and stitch bind.
Alternate term for dull finish on coated paper.
To identify the percent by which photographs or art
should be enlarged or reduced to achieve, the correct
size for printing.
To digitize an image by passing it through a device
that can read text or illustrations printed on paper
and translate the information into a form the computer
To compress paper along a straight line so it folds
more easily and accurately. Also known as crease.
Angles at which screens intersect with the horizontal
line of the press sheet. The common screen angles for
separations are black 45 degree, magenta 75 degree,
yellow 90 degree and cyan 105 degree.
Refers to the percentage of ink coverage that a screen
tint allows to print. Also known as screen percentage.
Method of printing by using a squeegee to force ink
through an assembly of mesh fabric and a stencil. Also
known as silkscreen printing.
Number of rows or lines of dots per inch or centimeter
in a screen for making a screen tint or halftone. Also
known as line count, ruling, screen frequency, screen
size and screen value.
Colour created by dots instead of solid ink coverage.
An undesirable effect showing unwanted ink spots on
in the non-image area. This happens if the printing
plate is not able to separate the ink effectively from
non-printing areas of the plate. Reasons are mostly
too high machine temperature, too high ink volume, too
low ink viscosity or wrong adjustment of rollers.
The color produced when equal amounts of two primary
colors are mixed. An example of an additive secondary
color would be when you have 100% red light and 100%
green light which produce the additive secondary color,
yellow. An example of a subtractive secondary color
would be when you mix equal amounts of the subtractive
primary colors, cyan and yellow, which produces the
subtractive secondary color, green.
A publication not having a cover stock. (a publication
only using text stock throughout)
A printed item independent of an envelope.
Art with elements that print in the base colour on one
surface and elements that print in other colours on
Undesirable transfer of wet ink from the top of one
sheet to the underside of another as they lie in the
delivery stack of a press.
Hue made darker by the addition of black, as compared
Darkest areas of a photograph or illustration, as compared
to midtones and high-lights.
Press that prints sheets of paper, as compared to a
Technique of printing one side of a sheet with one set
of plates, then the other side of the sheet with a set
of different plates. Also known as work and back.
Allowance, made during paste-up or stripping, to compensate
for creep. Creep is the problem; shingling is the solution.
Also known as stair stepping and progressive margins.
To bind by stapling through sheets along, one edge,
as compared to saddle stitch. Also known as cleat stitch
and side wire.
Printed sheet folded at least once, possibly many times,
to become part of a book, magazine or other publication.
Method of printing by using a squeegee to force ink
through an assembly of mesh fabric and a stencil.
Halftones dots with halos.
Any area of the sheet receiving 100 percent ink coverage,
as compared to a screen tint.
Inks using vegetable oils instead of petroleum products
as pigment vehicles, thus are easier on the environment.
Complete and precise written description of features
of a printing job such as type size and leading, paper
grade and quantity, printing or binding method.
Instrument used to measure the index of refraction of
Highlight area with no printable dots, thus no detail,
as compared to a diffuse highlight. Also known as catchlight
and dropout highlight.
Back or binding edge of a publication.
To bind using a spiral of continuous wire or plastic
looped through holes. Also known as wire-o binding.
(1) Different images, such as advertisements, printed
in different editions of a publication.
(2) Printing of a book that has some copies bound one
way and other copies bound another way.
Paper that, due to mistakes or accidents, must be thrown
away instead of delivered printed to the customer, as
compared to waste.
One ink or varnish applied to portions of a sheet, as
compared to flood or painted sheet.
Two pages that face each other and are designed as one
visual or production unit.
Background of 60 percent neutral gray and light that
measures 5000 degrees Kelvin the colour of daylight
on a bright day.
Method used by printers to ensure quality and delivery
times specified by customers. Abbreviated SPC.
A word used by proof readers to signify that something
once erased, or marked for omission, is to remain as
Images are converted into screens digitally made up
of very small dots which are equal in size, but of variable
spacing. An alternative to conventional screening that
separates an image into very fine, randomly placed microdots,
rather than a grid of geometrically aligned halftone
cells. The variable dot pattern eliminates many of the
moiré patterns and allows for more than four
colours to be used to represent an image. This is the
primary aspect of high-fidelity printing.
Popular sizes, weights and colours of papers available
for prompt delivery from a paper merchant's warehouse.
Order for paper that a mill or merchant sends to a printer
from inventory at a warehouse, as compared to a mill
To assemble images on film for platemaking. Stripping
involves correcting flaws in film, assembling pieces
of film into flats and ensuring that film and flats
register correctly. Also known as film assembly and
A variant of the basic type face, example like Italic,
Bold, Strikethrough or Outline. A character style is
a collection of character formatting attributes that
can be applied to a selected range of text. A paragraph
style includes both character and paragraph formatting
attributes, and can be applied to a selected paragraph
or range of paragraphs. Character styles can be used
to set some character attributes while leaving other
Alternate term for basis weight, usually referring to
Hot die, foil or other means in creating an image on
a case bound book.
Any surface or material on which printing is done.
Colour produced by light reflected from a surface, as
compared to additive colour. Subtractive colour includes
hues in colour photos and colours created by inks on
Yellow, magenta and cyan. In the graphic arts, these
are known as process colours because, along with black,
they are the inks colours used in colour-process printing.
Groundwood paper made using alternating chrome and fiber
rollers that makes a very smooth, thin sheet of paper
used mainly for advertising flyers and magazines. Abbreviated
Taking an already printed matter and re-printing again
on the same.
Specifications for Web Offset Publications, which are
the specifications recommended for web printing of publications.
A set of guidelines that specify color standards, film
densities, screen rulings, reverses, overprinted type,
proofing, color bars, and proofing stock for printing
web offset publications. These guidelines have been
set up to promote uniform communication throughout the
different areas of the publishing process to strive
for quality color in web offset publications.
One half the size of a broadsheet.
Computer file format used to store images from scanners
and video devices. Abbreviated TIFF.
Densities of the four process inks as recommended for
various printing processes and grades of paper. See
also Total Area Coverage.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. A set
of rules governing the reliable transfer of data between
computers on the Internet.
A standard layout concerning a printing project's basic
details with regards to its dimensions.
General term to describe the type of paper suitable
for printing, (except newsprint and bristol), especially
offset printing. Text paper can have many different
finishes and may be coated or uncoated. It is good for
2-sided printing and is also characterized by excellent
folding qualities and durability. Also known as book
The technique of flowing text around graphic elements.
Method of printing using colourless resin powder that
takes on the colour of underlying ink. Also known as
Screening or adding white to a solid colour for results
of lightening that specific colour.
Adding an additional page(s) beyond the normal process
Reduction in the tonal range from original scene to
Total of the dot percentages of the process colours
in the final film. Also known as density of tone, shadow
saturation, total dot density and total ink coverage.
Plate that accents or prints a colour that four-colour
process printing cannot reproduce well enough or at
all. Also known as kiss plate.
Positive photographic image on film allowing light to
pass through. Also known as chrome, colour transparency
and tranny. Often abbreviated TX.
To print one ink over another or to print a coating,
such as varnish, over an ink. The first liquid traps
the second liquid. See also Dry Traps and Wet Traps.
The overlapping of adjoining colors or ink to help prevent
the possibility of a fine white area showing between
colours due to misregistration of colour negatives or
due to normal variations on the press.
The size of the printed material in its finished stage
(e.g., the finished trim size is 5 1\2 x 8 1\2).
Paper that has not been coated with clay. Also known as
Technique of making colour separations that increases
the amount of cyan, magenta or yellow ink in shadow
areas. Abbreviated UCA.
Technique of making colour separations such that the
amount of cyan, magenta and yellow ink is reduced in
midtone and shadow areas while the amount of black is
increased. Abbreviated UCR.
A system to protect unique work from being reproduced.
To qualify, one must register their work and publish
a © indicating registration.
Technique of adjusting dot size to make a halftone or
separation appear sharper (in better focus) than the
original photo or the first proof. Also known as edge
enhancement and peaking.
Term to indicate multiple copies of one image printed
in one impression on a single sheet. "Two up"
or "three up" means printing the identical
piece twice or three times on each sheet.
Liquid applied to a printed sheet, then bonded and cured
with ultraviolet light.
The shade (darkness) or tint (lightness) of a colour.
Also known as brightness, lightness, shade and tone.
Liquid applied as a coating for protection and appearance.
A rough and toothy finish.
Small area or room that is set up for proper viewing
of transparencies, colour separations or press sheets.
Halftone whose background gradually and smoothly fades
away. Also known as degrade.
Paper made exclusively of pulp from trees or cotton,
as compared to recycled paper.
Volatile Organic Compounds, which include petroleum
substances used in printing inks.
To clean ink and fountain solutions from rollers, fountains,
screens, and other press components.
Unusable paper or paper damage during normal makeready,
printing or binding operations, as compared to spoilage.
Translucent logo in paper created during manufacturing
by slight embossing from a dandy roll while paper is
still approximately 90 percent water.
Split of the paper as it travels through a web press,
causing operators to rethread the press.
Unacceptable stretching of paper as it passes through
Press that prints from rolls of paper, usually cutting
it into sheets after printing. Also known as reel-fed
The use of a special proofing press designed for very
short runs and actually printing a quantity of sheets
using the real stock and real inks. This also requires
producing the plates for the proofing.
To print ink or varnish over wet ink, as compared to
(1) In a printed product, a die-cut hole revealing an
image on the sheet behind it.
(2) On a mechanical, an area that has been marked for
placement of a piece of artwork.
Side of the paper that rests against The Fourdrinier
wire during papermaking, as compared to felt side.
Parallel to the grain direction of the paper being used,
as compared to against the grain. See also Grain
Paper made from cooked wood fibers mixed with chemicals
and washed free of impurities. Paper usually classified
as calendered or supercalendered.
A printing method where different pages are assembled
so that they are on one plate. One side is printed and
then the sheet is turned from front to rear so that
one is using the opposite edge as the gripper edge and
then the second side is printed. The product is then
cut apart to make two finished items.
A printing method where different pages are assembled
so that they are on one plate. One side is printed and
then the sheet is turned over so that one is using the
same gripper edge and then the second side is printed.
The product is then cut apart to make two finished items.
Intermediate film that will be copied to make final
film after all corrections are made. Also known as buildups.
Paper manufactured without visible wire marks, usually
a fine textured paper.
An image that is backwards when compared to the original.
Also known as flopped and reverse reading.
Used when there is no leading from a section, word or
set of characters.
The point at which the on-screen vertical and horizontal
rulers meet at 0, the position relative to the page
is changeable by the user.
A paper fold represented by back and forth folds into
The fanfolding used on continuous forms to convert roll
paper to a continuous flat stack of forms.
To compress electronic files using the WinZIP program.
The effect of enlarging or reducing the magification
on screen. Zoom in allow to see more precise details
and zoom out allow to see the whole page of the layout.